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  • Description utilisateur: Internet Protocol television IPTV is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol IP networks this is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial satellite and cable television formats unlike downloaded media IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously as a result a client media player can begin playing the content such as a TV channel almost immediately this is known as streaming media although IPTV uses the internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the internet internet television IPTV is widely deployed in subscriber base telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer premises equipment IPTV is also used for media delivery around corporate and private networks IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process eg European telecommunications standards Institute IPTV services may be classified into three main groups live television and live media with or without related interactivity time-shifted media EG catch-up TV replays a TV show that was broadcast hours or days ago start over TV replays the current TV show from its beginning video on-demand VOD browse and view items in a stored media catalogue you topic definition historically many different definitions of IPTV have appeared including elementary streams over IP networks MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems one official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV itu-t FG IPTV is IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television video audio text graphics data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience security interactivity and reliability another definition of IPTV relating to the telecommunications industry is the one given by Alliance for telecommunications industry solutions 80 is IPTV exploratory group in 2005 IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services these services may include for example live TV video on-demand VOD an interactive TV ITV these services are delivered across an access agnostic packet-switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio video and control signals in contrast to video over the public internet with IPTV deployment network security and performance are tightly managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers advertisers and customers alike you topic history the term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of precept software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carr eco precept developed an internet video product named IPTV IPTV was an mbone compatible Windows and UNIX based application that transmitted single and multi source audio and video traffic ranging from low to DVD quality using both unicast and IP multicast real-time transport protocol RTP and real-time control protocol rtcp the software was written primarily by steve Kasner Karl Auerbach and chachi Kuan precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998 Cisco retains the IPTV trademark internet radio company audio net started the first continuous live webcast with content from wfaa-tv in January 1998 in kctu LP on the 10th of January 1998 Kingston Communications a regional telecommunications operator in the UK launched Kingston interactive television kit an IPTV over digital subscriber line DSL service in September 1999 the operator added additional VOD service in October 2001 with yes TV a VOD content provider Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV an IP VOD over ADSL as a commercial service the service became the reference for various changes to UK government regulations and policy on IPTV in 2006 the kit service was discontinued subscribers having declined from a peak of ten thousand to four thousand in 1999 NB te l now known as Bell Aliant was the first to commercially deploy Internet Protocol television over DSL in Canada using the Alcatel 7350 DSL AM and middleware created by a magic TV owned by NB tells parent company Bronco the service was marketed under the brand vibe vision in New Brunswick and later expanded into Nova Scotia in early 2000 after the formation of Alliant a magic TV was later sold to Alcatel in 2002 SaskTel was the second in Canada to commercially deploy IPTV over DSL using the loose and stinger DSL platform in 2005 sure West communications was the first North American company to offer high definition television HD TV channels over an IPTV service in 2005 bread bands bola get launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in Sweden as of January 2009 they are not the biggest supplier any longer TeliaSonera who launched their service later now has more customers in 2007 TPG became the first Internet service provider in Australia to launch IPTV by 2010 EE net and Telstra launched IPTV services in conjunction to internet plans in 2008 Pakistan telecommunication company Limited PTCL launched IPTV under the brand name of PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan this service is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live channels in 2010 CenturyLink after acquiring embark 2009 and quest 2010 entered five US markets with an IPTV service called prism this was after successful test marketing in Florida in 2016 Korean Central Television KCTV introduced the set-top box called man bang reportedly providing video on-demand services in North Korea via quasi Internet Protocol television IPTV man bang allows viewers to watch five different TV channels in real time and read find political information regarding the supreme leader and Joo che ideology and read articles from state-run news organizations Topic markets you topic residential the number of global IPTV subscribers was expected to grow from 28 million in 2009 to 83 million in 2013 Europe and Asia are the leading territories in terms of the overall number of subscribers but in terms of service revenues Europe and North America generate a larger share of global revenue due to very low average revenue per user ARPU in China and India the fastest-growing and ultimately the biggest markets is Asia the global IPTV market revenues are forecast to grow from 12 billion united states dollars in 2009 to 38 billion United States dollars in 2013 services also launched in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Pakistan Canada Croatia Lithuania Moldova Macedonia Montenegro Morocco Poland Mongolia Romania Serbia Slovenia the Netherlands Georgia Greece Denmark Finland Estonia Czech Republic Slovakia Hungary Norway Sweden Iceland Latvia turkey Colombia Chile and Uzbekistan the United Kingdom launched IPTV early and after a slow initial growth in February 2009 BT announced that it had reached 398 thousand subscribers to its BT Vision service claro has launched their own IPTV service call claro TV this service is available in several countries in which they operate such as Dominican Republic El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua IPTV is just beginning to grow in Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America and now it is growing in South Asian countries such as Sri Lanka Nepal Pakistan and India but significant plans exist in countries such as Russia Kazakhstan introduced its own IPTV services by the national provider Kazakh telecom JSC and content integrator ala cast under the I D TV brand in two major cities Astana and Almaty in 2009 and is about to go nationwide starting 2010 Australian is PE net launched Australia's first IPTV with fetch TV in India IPTV was launched by MTNL BSNL and geo in New Delhi Mumbai and Punjab ApS FL as another IPTV provider in the state of Andhra Pradesh in Nepal IPTV was first launched by nuit venture corporation called net TV Nepal the service can be accessed through its app web app and set-top boxes provided by local ISPs another IPTV was started by Nepal telecom called WoW time in 2016 which can be accessed through its app in Sri Lanka IPTV was launched by Sri Lanka Telecom operated by SLT vision comm in 2008 under the brand name of PEO TV this service is available in whole country in Pakistan IPTV was launched by PTCL in 2008 under the brand name of PTCL smart TV this service is available in 150 major cities of the country in the Philippines PLDT offers signal IPTV services as an add-on in certain a DSL and fiber optic plans in Malaysia various companies have attempted to launch IPTV services since 2005 failed pa y TV provider me-tv attempted to use an IPTV / UHF service but the service failed to take off Hiep TV was supposed to use an IPTV based system but not true IPTV as it does not provide a set-top box and requires users to view channels using a computer true IPTV providers available in the country at the moment are fine TV and de TV in q2 2010 Telekom Malaysia launched IPTV services through their fiber-to-the-home product unify in select areas in April 2010 Astro began testing IPTV services on Brad's high-speed fiber to the home optical fiber network in December 2010 Astro began trials with customers and high-rise condominium buildings around the Mont Kiara area in April 2011 Astro commercially launched its IPTV services under the tagline the one and only line you'll ever need a triple play offering in conjunction with time combure had that provides all the Astro programming via IPTV together with voice telephone services and broadband internet access all through the same fiber optic connection into the customers home in Turkey tt ne T launched IPTV services under the name ativy boo in 2010 it was available in pilot areas in the cities of Istanbul Izmir and Ankara as of 2011 IPTV services launched as a large-scale commercial service and widely available across the country under the trademark TV Bowie V super online plans to provide IPTV under the different name web TV in 2011 türk Telekom started building the fiber-optic substructure for IPTV in late 2007 you topic commercial and corporate IPTV has been widely used since around 2002 to distribute television and audio-visual AV media around businesses and commercial sites whether as live TV channels or video on-demand VOD examples of types of commercial users include airports schools offices hotels and sports stadiums to name just a few you topic architecture you topic elements IPTV headend we're live TV channels and AV sources are encoded encrypted and delivered in the form of IP multicast streams video on-demand VOD platform where on-demand video assets are stored and served as IP unicast streams when a user makes a request the VOD platform may sometimes be located with and considered part of the IPTV head end Interactive portal allows the user to navigate within the different IPTV services such as the VOD catalog delivery network the packet switched network that carries IP packets unicast and multicast endpoints user equipment that can request decode and deliver IPTV streams for display to the user this can include computers and mobile devices as well as set-top boxes home TV gateway the piece of equipment at a residential IPTV users home that terminates the access link from the delivery network user set-top box the piece of endpoint equipment that decodes and decrypt TV and VOD streams for display on the TV screen you topic architecture of a video server network depending on the network architecture of the service provider there are two main types of video server architecture that can be considered for IPTV deployment centralized and distributed the centralized architecture model as a relatively simple and easy to manage solution because all media content is stored in centralized servers it does not require a comprehensive content distribution system centralized architecture is generally good for a network that provides relatively small VOD service deployment has adequate core and edge bandwidth and has an efficient content delivery network CDN distributed architecture as just as scalable as the centralized model however it has bandwidth usage advantages and inherent system management features that are essential for managing a larger server network operators who plan to deploy a relatively large system should therefore consider implementing a distributed architecture model right from the start distributed architecture requires intelligent and sophisticated content distribution technologies to augment effective delivery of multimedia contents over service providers network you topic residential IP TV home networks in many cases the residential gateway that provides connectivity with the Internet access network is not located close to the IPTV set-top box this scenario becomes very common as service providers start to offer service packages with multiple set-top boxes per subscriber networking technologies that take advantage of existing home wiring such as power lines phone lines or coaxial cables or of wireless hardware have become common solutions for this problem although fragmentation in the wired home networking market has limited somewhat the growth in this market in December 2008 itu-t adopted recommendation ghn also known as G point nine nine six zero which is a next-generation home networking standard that specifies a common fie mac that can operate over any home wiring power lines phone lines or coaxial cables during 2012 IEC will adopt a pre norm for POF networking at gigabit speed this pre standard will specify a Phi that operates at an adaptable bit rate between 100 megabits per second and one gigabit per second depending on the link power budget groups such as the multimedia over coax Alliance home plug powerline Alliance home phone line networking Alliance and quasar Alliance plastic optical fiber each advocate their own technologies topic Telecom's m's architecture there is a growing standardization effort on the use of the 3gpp IP Multimedia Subsystem m's as an architecture for supporting IPTV services in telecommunications carrier networks both itu-t and ETSI are working on so-called Em's based IPTV standards CEG ETSI TS one hundred eighty two thousand twenty seven carriers will be able to offer both voice and IPTV services over the same core infrastructure and the implementation of services combining conventional TV services with telephony features eg caller ID on the TV screen will become straightforward the multi service Forum recently conducted interoperability of Em's based IPTV solutions during its GMI event in 2008 topic protocols IPTV covers both live TV multicast as well as stored video on-demand VOD unicast playback requires a broadband device connected to either a fixed or wireless IP network in the form of either a standalone personal computer or limited embedded OS device such as a smartphone touchscreen tablet game console connected TV or set-top box video compression is provided by either a H point 263 or H point 2 6-4 derived codec audio as compressed via mdc-t based codec and then encapsulated in either an MPEG transport stream or RTP packets or flash video packets for live or VOD streaming IP multicast allows for live data to be sent to multiple receivers using a single multicast group address each point to 64 mpeg-4 AVC is commonly used for internet streaming over higher bitrate standards such as H point 2 6 1 and H point 263 which were more designed for ISDN video conferencing H point 2 6 to MPEG – one half as generally not used as the bandwidth required would quite easily saturate a network which is why they are only used in single link broadcast or storage applications in standards-based IPTV systems the primary underlying protocols used are service provider based streaming IGMP for subscribing to a live multicast stream TV channel and for changing from one live multicast stream to another TV channel change IP multicast operates within lands including VLAN and across ones also IP multicast is usually routed in the network core by protocol independent multicast pim setting up correct distribution of multicast streams TV channels from their source all the way to the customers who wants to view them duplicating received packets as needed on-demand content uses a negotiated unicast connection real-time transport protocol RTP / user Datagram protocol UDP or the lower overhead H point two to two transport stream / transmission control protocol TCP are generally the preferred methods of encapsulation web-based unicast only live and VOD streaming Adobe Flash Player prefers rtmp over TCP with setup and control via either AMF or XML or JSON transactions Apple iOS uses HLS adaptive bitrate streaming over HTTP with setup and control via an embedded m3u playlist file Microsoft Silverlight uses smooth streaming adaptive bitrate streaming over HTTP web based multicast live in unicast VOD streaming the internet Engineering Task Force IETF recommends RTP over UDP or TCP transports with setup and control using RTSP over TCP connected TVs game consoles set-top boxes and networked personal video recorders local network content uses UPnP AV for unicast via HTTP over TCP AR for multicast live RTP over UDP web-based content is provided through either inline web plugins or a television broadcast based application that uses a middleware language such as mheg 5 that triggers an event such as loading an inline web browser using an Adobe Flash Player plugin a telecommunications company IPTV service has usually delivered over an investment heavy walled garden network local IPTV as used by businesses for audio-visual AV distribution on their company networks as typically based on a mixture conventional TV reception equipment and IPTV encoders IPTV gateways that take broadcast MPEG channels and IP wrapped them to create multicast streams topic via satellite although IPTV and conventional satellite TV distribution have been seen as complementary technologies they are likely to be increasingly used together in hybrid IPTV networks that deliver the highest levels of performance and reliability IPTV is largely neutral to the transmission medium and IP traffic is already routinely carried by satellite for Internet backbone trunking and corporate vs 18 networks the use of satellite to carry IP is fundamental to overcoming the greatest shortcoming of IPTV over terrestrial cables the speed bandwidth of the connection as well as availability the copper twisted pair cabling that forms the last mile of the telephone and broadband network in many countries is not able to provide a sizeable proportion of the population with an IPTV service that matches even existing terrestrial or satellite digital TV distribution for a competitive multi-channel TV service a connection speed of 20 megabits per second is likely to be required but unavailable to most potential customers the increasing popularity of high-definition television with twice the data rate of SD video increases connection speed requirements or limits IPTV service quality and connection eligibility even further however satellites are capable of delivering in excess of 100 gigabits per second via multi spot beam technologies making satellite a clear emerging technology for implementing IPTV networks satellite distribution can be included in an IPTV network architecture in several ways the simplest to implement as an IPTV direct-to-home DTH architecture in which hybrid DVB broadband set-top boxes in subscriber homes integrate satellite and IP reception to give near infinite bandwidth with return channel capabilities in such a system many live TV channels may be multicast via satellite IP encapsulated or as conventional DVB digital TV with stored video on-demand transmission via the broadband connection or Kiva's satellite media solutions division suggests IPTV works best in a hybrid format for example you would use broadband to receive some content and satellite to receive other such as live channels topic hybrid IPTV hybrid IPTV refers to the combination of traditional broadcast TV services and video delivered over either managed IP networks or the public Internet it is an increasing trend in both the consumer and paid TV operator market hybrid IPTV has grown in popularity in recent years as a result of two major drivers since the emergence of online video aggregation sites like YouTube and Vimeo in the mid-2000s traditional pay TV operators have come under increasing pressure to provide their subscribers with a means of viewing internet-based video both professional and user-generated on their televisions at the same time specialist IP based operators often telecommunications providers have looked for ways to offer analog and digital terrestrial services to their operations without adding either additional cost or complexity to their transmission operations bandwidth as a valuable asset for operators so many have looked for alternative ways to deliver these new services without investing in additional network infrastructures a hybrid set-top allows content from a range of sources including terrestrial broadcast satellite and cable to be brought together with video delivered over the Internet via an ethernet connection on the device this enables television viewers to access a greater variety of content on their TV sets without the need for a separate box for each service hybrid IPTV set-top boxes also enable users to access a range of advanced interactive services such as VOD catch-up TV as well as Internet applications including video telephony surveillance gaming shopping government accessed via a television set from a pay TV operators perspective a hybrid IPTV set-top box gives them greater long-term flexibility by enabling them to deploy new services and applications as and when consumers require most often without the need to upgrade equipment or for a technician to visit and reconfigure or swap out the device this reduces the cost of launching new services increases speed to market and limits disruption for consumers the hybrid broadcast broadband TV hbb TV consortium of industry companies is currently promoting and establishing an open european standard for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast and broadband digital TV and multimedia applications with a single user interface these trends led to the development of hybrid broadcast broadband TV set-top boxes that included both a broadcast tuner and an internet connection usually an Ethernet port the first commercially available hybrid IPTV set-top box was developed by advanced digital broadcast a developer of digital television hardware and software in 2005 the platform was developed for Spanish pay TV operator telefónica and used as part of its movie star TV service launched to subscribers at the end of 2005 an alternative approach as the IPTV version of the headend in the sky cable TV solution here multiple TV channels are distributed via satellite to the ISP or IPTV providers point of presence pop for IP encapsulated distribution to individual subscribers as required by each subscriber this can provide a huge selection of channels to subscribers without overburdening internet trunking to the pop and enables an IPTV service to be offered to smaller remote operators outside the reach of terrestrial high-speed broadband connection an example as a network combining fiber and satellite distribution via an SES new skies satellite of 95 channels to Latin America and the Caribbean operated by IPTV Americas while the future development of IPTV probably lies with a number of coexisting architectures and implementations it is clear that broadcasting of high bandwidth applications such as IPTV is accomplished more efficiently and cost-effectively using satellite and it is predicted that the majority of global IPTV growth will be fueled by hybrid networks you topic advantages the Internet Protocol based platform offers significant advantages including the ability to integrate television with other IP based services like high-speed Internet access and VoIP a switched IP network also allows for the delivery of significantly more content and functionality in a typical TV or satellite network using broadcast video technology all the content constantly flows downstream to each customer and the customer switches the content at the set-top box the customer can select from as many choices as the telecoms cable or satellite company can stuff into the pipe flowing into the home a switched IP network works differently content remains in the network and only the content the customer selects is sent into the customers home that frees up bandwidth and the customers choice is less restricted by the size of the pipe into the home this also implies that the customers privacy could be compromised to a greater extent than is possible with traditional TV or satellite networks it may also provide a means to hack into or at least disrupt see denial of service the private network you topic economics the cable industry's expenditures of approximately 1 billion dollars per year are based on Network updates to accommodate higher data speeds most operators use two to three channels to support maximum data speeds of 50 megabits per second to 100 megabits per second however because video streams require a high bitrate for much longer periods of time the expenditures to support high amounts of video traffic will be much greater this phenomenon is called persistency data persistency is routinely 5 percent while video persistency can easily reach 50 percent as video traffic continues to grow this means that significantly more cmts downstream channels will be required to carry this video content based on today's market it is likely that industry expenditures for cmts expansion could exceed 2 billion dollars a year virtually all of that expenditure being driven by video traffic adoption of IPTV for carrying the majority of this traffic could save the industry approximately 75 percent of this capital expenditure you topic interactivity an ip-based platform also allows significant opportunities to make the TV viewing experience more interactive and personalized the supplier may for example include an interactive program guide that allows viewers to search for content by title or actor's name or a picture-in-picture functionality that allows them to channel surf without leaving the program they're watching viewers may be able to look up a player stats while watching a sports game or control the camera angle they also may be able to access photos or music from their PC on their television use a wireless phone to schedule a recording of their favorite show or even adjust parental control so their child can watch a documentary for a school report while they're away from home in order that their can take place an interaction between the receiver and the transmitter a feedback channel as needed due to this terrestrial satellite and cable networks for television do not allow interactivity however interactivity with those networks can be possible by combining TV networks with data networks such as the internet or a mobile communication network you topic video-on-demand IPTV technology is bringing video on-demand VOD to television which permits a customer to browse an online program or film catalog to watch trailers and to then select a selected recording the play out of the selected item starts nearly instantaneously on the customers TV or PC technically when the customer selects the movie a point-to-point unicast connection is set up between the customers decoder set-top box or PC and the delivering streaming server the signaling for the trick play functionality pause slow motion wind rewind etc is assured by RTSP real-time streaming protocol the most common codecs used for VOD are mpeg-2 mpeg-4 and vc-1 in an attempt to avoid content piracy the VOD content is usually encrypted whilst encryption of satellite and cable TV broadcasts as an old practice with IPTV technology it can effectively be thought of as a form of digital rights management a film that is chosen for example may be playable for 24 hours following payment after which time it becomes unavailable you topic IP TV based converged services another advantage is the opportunity for integration and convergence this opportunity is amplified when using Em's based solutions converged services implies interaction of existing services in a seamless manner to create new value-added services one example as on-screen caller ID getting caller ID on a TV and the ability to handle it send it to voicemail etc IP based services will help to enable efforts to provide consumers anytime anywhere access to content over their televisions PCs and cell phones and to integrate services and content to tie them together within businesses and institutions IPTV eliminates the need to run a parallel infrastructure to deliver live and stored video services topic limitations IPTV is sensitive to packet loss and delays if the stream data is unreliable IPTV has strict minimum speed requirements in order to facilitate the right number of frames per second to deliver moving pictures this means that the limited connection speed and bandwidth available for a large IPTV customer base can reduce the service quality delivered although a few countries have very high-speed broadband enabled populations such as South Korea with six million homes benefiting from a minimum connection speed of 100 megabits per second in other countries such as the UK legacy Network struggled to provide three to five megabits per second and so simultaneous provision to the home of TV channels VoIP and internet access may not be viable the last mile delivery for IPTV usually has a bandwidth restriction that only allows a small number of simultaneous TV channel streams typically from one to three to be delivered streaming IPTV across Wireless links within the home has proved troublesome not due to bandwidth limitations as many assumed but due to issues with multipath and reflections of the RF signal carrying the IP data packets an IPTV stream as sensitive to packets arriving at the right time and in the right order improvements in wireless technology are now starting to provide equipment to solve the problem due to the limitations of wireless most IPTV service providers today use wired home networking technologies instead of wireless technologies like I Triple E 802.11 service providers such as AT&T which makes extensive use of wireline home networking as part of its AT&T u-verse IPTV service have expressed support for the work done in this direction by itu-t which has adopted recommendation G H n also known as G point nine nine six zero which is a next-generation home networking standard that specifies a common fie Mac that can operate over any home wiring powerlines phone lines or coaxial cables topic latency the latency inherent in the use of satellite internet has often held up as reason why satellites cannot be successfully used for IPTV in practice however latency is not an important factor for IPTV since it is a service that does not require real-time transmission as is the case with telephony or video conferencing services it is the latency of response to requests to change channel display an EPG etc that most effects customers perceived quality of service and these problems affect satellite IPTV no more than terrestrial IPTV command latency problems faced by terrestrial IPTV networks with insufficient bandwidth as their customer base grows may be solved by the high capacity of satellite distribution satellite distribution does suffer from latency the time for the signal to travel up from the hub to the satellite and back down to the user as around 0.25 seconds and cannot be reduced however the effects of this delay are mitigated in real-life systems using data compression TCP acceleration and HTTP prefetching satellite latency can be detrimental to especially time-sensitive applications such as online gaming although it only seriously affects the likes of first person shooters while many MMO G's can operate well over satellite internet but IPTV is typically a simplex operation one-way transmission and latency is not a critical factor for video transmission existing video transmission systems of both analog and digital formats already introduced known quantifiable delays existing DVB TV channels that simulcast by both terrestrial and satellite transmissions experience the same 0.25 second delay difference between the two services with no detrimental effect and it goes unnoticed by viewers topic bandwidth requirements digital video as a combination of sequence of digital images and they are made up of pixels or picture elements each pixel has two values which are luminance and chrominance luminance as representing intensity of the pixel chrominance represents the color of the pixel 3 bytes would be used to represent the color of the high quality image for a true color technique a sequence of images is creating the digital video in that case images are called as frames movies use 24 frames per second however the rate of the frames can change according to territories electrical system so that there are different kinds of frame rates for instance North America is using approximately 30 frames per second where the Europe television frame rate is 25 frames per second each digital video has dimensions width and height when referred to analog television the dimension for SD TV is 720 x 480 pixels on the other hand numerous HDTV requires 1920 x 1080 pixels moreover whilst for SD TV 2 bytes 16 bits is enough to create the color depth HDTV requires 3 bytes 24 bits to create the color depth thereby with a rate of 30 frames per second the uncompressed data rate for SD TV becomes 30 x 720 x 480 x 16 in other words 147 million 456 thousand bits per second moreover for HDTV at the same frame rate uncompressed date-rape becomes 30 x 1920 x 1080 x 24 or 1 billion four hundred ninety-two million nine hundred ninety-two thousand bits per second using that simple calculation a service provider service delivery to the subscribers is limited unless a lossy compression method is used there is no absolute answer for the bandwidth requirement for the IPTV service because the bandwidth requirement is increasing due to the devices inside the household thus currently compressed HDTV content can be delivered at a data rate between 8 and 10 megabits per second but if the home of the consumer equipped with several HDTV outputs this rate will be multiplied respectively the high-speed data transfer will increase the needed bandwidth for the viewer at least 2 megabits per second as needed to use web-based applications on the computer additionally to that 64 kilobits per second is required to use landline telephone for the property in minimal usage to receive an IPTV Triple Play service requires 13 megabits per second to process in a household you topic privacy implications due to limitations in bandwidth an IPTV channel as delivered to the user one at a time as opposed to the traditional multiplex delivery changing a channel requires requesting the headend server to provide a different broadcast stream much like VOD for VOD the stream is delivered using unicast for the normal TV signal multicast as used this could enable the service provider to accurately track each and every program watched and the duration of watching for each viewer broadcasters and advertisers could then understand their audience and programming better with accurate data and targeted advertising in conjunction with regulatory differences between IPTV and cable TV this tracking could pose a threat to privacy according to critics for IP multicast scenarios since a particular multicast group TV channel needs to be requested before it can be viewed the same privacy concerns apply you topic vendors a small number of companies supply most current IPTV system solutions some such as movie star TV were formed by telecoms operators themselves to minimize external costs a tactic also used by PCCW of Hong Kong some major telecoms vendors are also active in this space notably alcatel-lucent sometimes working with movie star TV Sri Lanka Telecom Ericsson notably since acquiring Tandberg television NEC Accenture Accenture video solution Thomson Huawei and ZTE as are some IT houses led by Microsoft california-based at Starcom Inc tennessee-based Worley consulting tokyo-based the new media group Malaysian based select TV Oslo Norway based snap TV and Delaware based alpha and also offer end-to-end networking infrastructure for IPTV based services and Hong kong-based bns Limited provides turnkey open platform IPTV technology solutions global sales of IPTV systems exceeded 2 billion United States dollars in 2007 hospitality IPTV limited having established many closed network IPTV systems expanded in 2013 to ah delivery platforms for markets in New Zealand Australia and Asia Pacific region Google Fiber offers an IPTV service in various US cities which includes up to 1 gigabit speed internet and over 290 channels depending on package via the fiber-optic network being built out in Kansas City Kansas and Kansas City Missouri many of these IPTV solution vendors participated in the biennial global msf interoperability 2008 GMI event which was coordinated by the multi service forum MSF at five sites worldwide from 20 to the 31st of October 2008 test equipment vendors including net rounds Kedah nomicon empirics Ixia mu dynamics and spirit joined solution vendors such as the company listed above in one of the largest IPTV proving grounds ever deployed you topic service bundling for residential users IPTV is often provided in conjunction with video on-demand and may be bundled with Internet services such as Internet access and voice over Internet Protocol VoIP telecommunication services commercial bundling of IPTV VoIP and Internet access as sometimes referred to in marketing as triple play service when these three are offered with cellular service the combined service may be referred to as quadruple play topic regulation historically broadcast television has been regulated differently from telecommunications as IPTV allows TV and VOD to be transmitted over IP networks new regulatory issues arise professor Eli M gnome highlights in his report TV are not TV three screens one regulation some of the key challenges with sector-specific regulation that is becoming obsolete due to convergence in this field you topic see also comparison between art and IPTV of streaming media systems comparison of video services content delivery network internet television list of music streaming services list of streaming media systems p2p TV of broadcasts and broadcasting organizations treaty SAT greater than IP software-as-a-service streaming media TV gateway web television webcast.

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